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`cmath` – mathematical functions for complex numbers¶

This module implements a subset of the corresponding CPython module, as described below. For more information, refer to the original CPython documentation: `cmath`.

The `cmath` module provides some basic mathematical functions for working with complex numbers.

Availability: not available on WiPy and ESP8266. Floating point support required for this module.

Functions¶

cmath.cos(z)

Return the cosine of `z`.

cmath.exp(z)

Return the exponential of `z`.

cmath.log(z)

Return the natural logarithm of `z`. The branch cut is along the negative real axis.

cmath.log10(z)

Return the base-10 logarithm of `z`. The branch cut is along the negative real axis.

cmath.phase(z)

Returns the phase of the number `z`, in the range (-pi, +pi].

cmath.polar(z)

Returns, as a tuple, the polar form of `z`.

cmath.rect(r, phi)

Returns the complex number with modulus `r` and phase `phi`.

cmath.sin(z)

Return the sine of `z`.

cmath.sqrt(z)

Return the square-root of `z`.

Constants¶

cmath.e

base of the natural logarithm

cmath.pi

the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter