This is the documentation for the latest development branch of MicroPython and may refer to features that are not available in released versions.

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Porting MicroPython

The MicroPython project contains several ports to different microcontroller families and architectures. The project repository has a ports directory containing a subdirectory for each supported port.

A port will typically contain definitions for multiple “boards”, each of which is a specific piece of hardware that that port can run on, e.g. a development kit or device.

The minimal port is available as a simplified reference implementation of a MicroPython port. It can run on both the host system and an STM32F4xx MCU.

In general, starting a port requires:

  • Setting up the toolchain (configuring Makefiles, etc).

  • Implementing boot configuration and CPU initialization.

  • Initialising basic drivers required for development and debugging (e.g. GPIO, UART).

  • Performing the board-specific configurations.

  • Implementing the port-specific modules.

Minimal MicroPython firmware

The best way to start porting MicroPython to a new board is by integrating a minimal MicroPython interpreter. For this walkthrough, create a subdirectory for the new port in the ports directory:

$ cd ports
$ mkdir example_port

The basic MicroPython firmware is implemented in the main port file, e.g main.c:

#include "py/compile.h"
#include "py/gc.h"
#include "py/mperrno.h"
#include "py/stackctrl.h"
#include "shared/runtime/gchelper.h"
#include "shared/runtime/pyexec.h"

// Allocate memory for the MicroPython GC heap.
static char heap[4096];

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    // Initialise the MicroPython runtime.
    mp_stack_ctrl_init();
    gc_init(heap, heap + sizeof(heap));
    mp_init();

    // Start a normal REPL; will exit when ctrl-D is entered on a blank line.
    pyexec_friendly_repl();

    // Deinitialise the runtime.
    gc_sweep_all();
    mp_deinit();
    return 0;
}

// Handle uncaught exceptions (should never be reached in a correct C implementation).
void nlr_jump_fail(void *val) {
    for (;;) {
    }
}

// Do a garbage collection cycle.
void gc_collect(void) {
    gc_collect_start();
    gc_helper_collect_regs_and_stack();
    gc_collect_end();
}

// There is no filesystem so stat'ing returns nothing.
mp_import_stat_t mp_import_stat(const char *path) {
    return MP_IMPORT_STAT_NO_EXIST;
}

// There is no filesystem so opening a file raises an exception.
mp_lexer_t *mp_lexer_new_from_file(const char *filename) {
    mp_raise_OSError(MP_ENOENT);
}

We also need a Makefile at this point for the port:

# Include the core environment definitions; this will set $(TOP).
include ../../py/mkenv.mk

# Include py core make definitions.
include $(TOP)/py/py.mk
include $(TOP)/extmod/extmod.mk

# Set CFLAGS and libraries.
CFLAGS += -I. -I$(BUILD) -I$(TOP)
LIBS += -lm

# Define the required source files.
SRC_C = \
    main.c \
    mphalport.c \
    shared/readline/readline.c \
    shared/runtime/gchelper_generic.c \
    shared/runtime/pyexec.c \
    shared/runtime/stdout_helpers.c \

# Define the required object files.
OBJ = $(PY_CORE_O) $(addprefix $(BUILD)/, $(SRC_C:.c=.o))

# Define the top-level target, the main firmware.
all: $(BUILD)/firmware.elf

# Define how to build the firmware.
$(BUILD)/firmware.elf: $(OBJ)
    $(ECHO) "LINK $@"
    $(Q)$(CC) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ $^ $(LIBS)
    $(Q)$(SIZE) $@

# Include remaining core make rules.
include $(TOP)/py/mkrules.mk

Remember to use proper tabs to indent the Makefile.

MicroPython Configurations

After integrating the minimal code above, the next step is to create the MicroPython configuration files for the port. The compile-time configurations are specified in mpconfigport.h and additional hardware-abstraction functions, such as time keeping, in mphalport.h.

The following is an example of an mpconfigport.h file:

#include <stdint.h>

// Python internal features.
#define MICROPY_ENABLE_GC                       (1)
#define MICROPY_HELPER_REPL                     (1)
#define MICROPY_ERROR_REPORTING                 (MICROPY_ERROR_REPORTING_TERSE)
#define MICROPY_FLOAT_IMPL                      (MICROPY_FLOAT_IMPL_FLOAT)

// Enable u-modules to be imported with their standard name, like sys.
#define MICROPY_MODULE_WEAK_LINKS               (1)

// Fine control over Python builtins, classes, modules, etc.
#define MICROPY_PY_ASYNC_AWAIT                  (0)
#define MICROPY_PY_BUILTINS_SET                 (0)
#define MICROPY_PY_ATTRTUPLE                    (0)
#define MICROPY_PY_COLLECTIONS                  (0)
#define MICROPY_PY_MATH                         (0)
#define MICROPY_PY_IO                           (0)
#define MICROPY_PY_STRUCT                       (0)

// Type definitions for the specific machine.

typedef intptr_t mp_int_t; // must be pointer size
typedef uintptr_t mp_uint_t; // must be pointer size
typedef long mp_off_t;

// We need to provide a declaration/definition of alloca().
#include <alloca.h>

// Define the port's name and hardware.
#define MICROPY_HW_BOARD_NAME "example-board"
#define MICROPY_HW_MCU_NAME   "unknown-cpu"

#define MP_STATE_PORT MP_STATE_VM

This configuration file contains machine-specific configurations including aspects like if different MicroPython features should be enabled e.g. #define MICROPY_ENABLE_GC (1). Making this Setting (0) disables the feature.

Other configurations include type definitions, root pointers, board name, microcontroller name etc.

Similarly, an minimal example mphalport.h file looks like this:

static inline void mp_hal_set_interrupt_char(char c) {}

Support for standard input/output

MicroPython requires at least a way to output characters, and to have a REPL it also requires a way to input characters. Functions for this can be implemented in the file mphalport.c, for example:

#include <unistd.h>
#include "py/mpconfig.h"

// Receive single character, blocking until one is available.
int mp_hal_stdin_rx_chr(void) {
    unsigned char c = 0;
    int r = read(STDIN_FILENO, &c, 1);
    (void)r;
    return c;
}

// Send the string of given length.
void mp_hal_stdout_tx_strn(const char *str, mp_uint_t len) {
    int r = write(STDOUT_FILENO, str, len);
    (void)r;
}

These input and output functions have to be modified depending on the specific board API. This example uses the standard input/output stream.

Building and running

At this stage the directory of the new port should contain:

ports/example_port/
├── main.c
├── Makefile
├── mpconfigport.h
├── mphalport.c
└── mphalport.h

The port can now be built by running make (or otherwise, depending on your system).

If you are using the default compiler settings in the Makefile given above then this will create an executable called build/firmware.elf which can be executed directly. To get a functional REPL you may need to first configure the terminal to raw mode:

$ stty raw opost -echo
$ ./build/firmware.elf

That should give a MicroPython REPL. You can then run commands like:

MicroPython v1.13 on 2021-01-01; example-board with unknown-cpu
>>> import sys
>>> sys.implementation
('micropython', (1, 13, 0))
>>>

Use Ctrl-D to exit, and then run reset to reset the terminal.

Adding a module to the port

To add a custom module like myport, first add the module definition in a file modmyport.c:

#include "py/runtime.h"

STATIC mp_obj_t myport_info(void) {
    mp_printf(&mp_plat_print, "info about my port\n");
    return mp_const_none;
}
STATIC MP_DEFINE_CONST_FUN_OBJ_0(myport_info_obj, myport_info);

STATIC const mp_rom_map_elem_t myport_module_globals_table[] = {
    { MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(MP_QSTR___name__), MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(MP_QSTR_myport) },
    { MP_ROM_QSTR(MP_QSTR_info), MP_ROM_PTR(&myport_info_obj) },
};
STATIC MP_DEFINE_CONST_DICT(myport_module_globals, myport_module_globals_table);

const mp_obj_module_t myport_module = {
    .base = { &mp_type_module },
    .globals = (mp_obj_dict_t *)&myport_module_globals,
};

MP_REGISTER_MODULE(MP_QSTR_myport, myport_module);

You will also need to edit the Makefile to add modmyport.c to the SRC_C list, and a new line adding the same file to SRC_QSTR (so qstrs are searched for in this new file), like this:

SRC_C = \
    main.c \
    modmyport.c \
    mphalport.c \
    ...

SRC_QSTR += modmyport.c

If all went correctly then, after rebuilding, you should be able to import the new module:

>>> import myport
>>> myport.info()
info about my port
>>>