:mod:`cmath` -- mathematical functions for complex numbers ========================================================== .. module:: cmath :synopsis: mathematical functions for complex numbers |see_cpython_module| :mod:`python:cmath`. The ``cmath`` module provides some basic mathematical functions for working with complex numbers. Availability: not available on WiPy and ESP8266. Floating point support required for this module. Functions --------- .. function:: cos(z) Return the cosine of ``z``. .. function:: exp(z) Return the exponential of ``z``. .. function:: log(z) Return the natural logarithm of ``z``. The branch cut is along the negative real axis. .. function:: log10(z) Return the base-10 logarithm of ``z``. The branch cut is along the negative real axis. .. function:: phase(z) Returns the phase of the number ``z``, in the range (-pi, +pi]. .. function:: polar(z) Returns, as a tuple, the polar form of ``z``. .. function:: rect(r, phi) Returns the complex number with modulus ``r`` and phase ``phi``. .. function:: sin(z) Return the sine of ``z``. .. function:: sqrt(z) Return the square-root of ``z``. Constants --------- .. data:: e base of the natural logarithm .. data:: pi the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter