Important summary of this section
- MicroPython implements a subset of Python functionality for each module.
- To ease extensibility, MicroPython versions of standard Python modules
- Any particular MicroPython variant or port may miss any feature/function described in this general documentation, due to resource constraints.
This chapter describes modules (function and class libraries) which are built into MicroPython. There are a few categories of modules:
- Modules which implement a subset of standard Python functionality and are not intended to be extended by the user.
- Modules which implement a subset of Python functionality, with a provision for extension by the user (via Python code).
- Modules which implement MicroPython extensions to the Python standard libraries.
- Modules specific to a particular port and thus not portable.
Note about the availability of modules and their contents: This documentation in general aspires to describe all modules and functions/classes which are implemented in MicroPython. However, MicroPython is highly configurable, and each port to a particular board/embedded system makes available only a subset of MicroPython libraries. For officially supported ports, there is an effort to either filter out non-applicable items, or mark individual descriptions with “Availability:” clauses describing which ports provide a given feature. With that in mind, please still be warned that some functions/classes in a module (or even the entire module) described in this documentation may be unavailable in a particular build of MicroPython on a particular board. The best place to find general information of the availability/non-availability of a particular feature is the “General Information” section which contains information pertaining to a specific port.
Beyond the built-in libraries described in this documentation, many more
modules from the Python standard library, as well as further MicroPython
extensions to it, can be found in
Python standard libraries and micro-libraries¶
The following standard Python libraries have been “micro-ified” to fit in with
the philosophy of MicroPython. They provide the core functionality of that
module and are intended to be a drop-in replacement for the standard Python
library. Some modules below use a standard Python name, but prefixed with “u”,
ujson instead of
json. This is to signify that such a module is
micro-library, i.e. implements only a subset of CPython module functionality.
By naming them differently, a user has a choice to write a Python-level module
to extend functionality for better compatibility with CPython (indeed, this is
what done by the
micropython-lib project mentioned above).
On some embedded platforms, where it may be cumbersome to add Python-level
wrapper modules to achieve naming compatibility with CPython, micro-modules
are available both by their u-name, and also by their non-u-name. The
non-u-name can be overridden by a file of that name in your package path.
import json will first search for a file
json and load that package if it is found. If nothing is found,
it will fallback to loading the built-in
- Builtin functions and exceptions
array– arrays of numeric data
gc– control the garbage collector
math– mathematical functions
sys– system specific functions
ubinascii– binary/ASCII conversions
ucollections– collection and container types
uerrno– system error codes
uhashlib– hashing algorithms
uheapq– heap queue algorithm
uio– input/output streams
ujson– JSON encoding and decoding
uos– basic “operating system” services
ure– simple regular expressions
uselect– wait for events on a set of streams
usocket– socket module
ussl– SSL/TLS module
ustruct– pack and unpack primitive data types
utime– time related functions
uzlib– zlib decompression
Functionality specific to the MicroPython implementation is available in the following libraries.