1. Introduction to MicroPython on the ESP8266¶
Using MicroPython is a great way to get the most of your ESP8266 board. And vice versa, the ESP8266 chip is a great platform for using MicroPython. This tutorial will guide you through setting up MicroPython, getting a prompt, using WebREPL, connecting to the network and communicating with the Internet, using the hardware peripherals, and controlling some external components.
Let’s get started!
The first thing you need is a board with an ESP8266 chip. The MicroPython software supports the ESP8266 chip itself and any board should work. The main characteristic of a board is how much flash it has, how the GPIO pins are connected to the outside world, and whether it includes a built-in USB-serial convertor to make the UART available to your PC.
The minimum requirement for flash size is 512k. A board with this amount of flash will not have room for a filesystem, but otherwise is fully functional. If your board has 1Mbyte or more of flash then it will support a filesystem.
Names of pins will be given in this tutorial using the chip names (eg GPIO0) and it should be straightforward to find which pin this corresponds to on your particular board.
1.2. Powering the board¶
If your board has a USB connector on it then most likely it is powered through this when connected to your PC. Otherwise you will need to power it directly. Please refer to the documentation for your board for further details.
1.3. Deploying the firmware¶
The very first thing you need to do is put the MicroPython firmware (compiled code) on your ESP8266 device. There are two main steps to do this: first you need to put your device in boot-loader mode, and second you need to copy across the firmware. The exact procedure for these steps is highly dependent on the particular board and you will need to refer to its documentation for details.
If you have a board that has a USB connector, a USB-serial convertor, and has the DTR and RTS pins wired in a special way then deploying the firmware should be easy as all steps can be done automatically. Boards that have such features include the Adafruit Feather HUZZAH and NodeMCU boards.
For best results it is recommended to first erase the entire flash of your device before putting on new MicroPython firmware.
Currently we only support esptool.py to copy across the firmware. You can find this tool here: https://github.com/themadinventor/esptool/, or install it using pip:
pip install esptool
It requires Python 2.7, so you may need to use
pip2 instead of
the command above. Any other
flashing program should work, so feel free to try them out, or refer to the
documentation for your board to see its recommendations.
Using esptool.py you can erase the flash with the command:
esptool.py --port /dev/ttyUSB0 erase_flash
And then deploy the new firmware using:
esptool.py --port /dev/ttyUSB0 --baud 460800 write_flash --flash_size=8m 0 esp8266-2016-05-03-v1.8.bin
You might need to change the “port” setting to something else relevant for your PC. You may also need to reduce the baudrate if you get errors when flashing (eg down to 115200). The filename of the firmware should also match the file that you have.
If you have a NodeMCU board, you may need to use the following command to deploy the firmware (note the “-fm dio” option):
esptool.py --port /dev/ttyUSB0 --baud 460800 write_flash --flash_size=8m -fm dio 0 esp8266-2016-05-03-v1.8.bin
If the above commands run without error then MicroPython should be installed on your board!
1.4. Serial prompt¶
Once you have the firmware on the device you can access the REPL (Python prompt) over UART0 (GPIO1=TX, GPIO3=RX), which might be connected to a USB-serial convertor, depending on your board. The baudrate is 115200. The next part of the tutorial will discuss the prompt in more detail.
After a fresh install and boot the device configures itself as a WiFi access point (AP) that you can connect to. The ESSID is of the form MicroPython-xxxxxx where the x’s are replaced with part of the MAC address of your device (so will be the same everytime, and most likely different for all ESP8266 chips). The password for the WiFi is micropythoN (note the upper-case N). Its IP address will be 192.168.4.1 once you connect to its network. WiFi configuration will be discussed in more detail later in the tutorial.