machine — functions related to the hardware

The machine module contains specific functions related to the hardware on a particular board. Most functions in this module allow to achieve direct and unrestricted access to and control of hardware blocks on a system (like CPU, timers, buses, etc.). Used incorrectly, this can lead to malfunction, lockups, crashes of your board, and in extreme cases, hardware damage.

A note of callbacks used by functions and class methods of machine module: all these callbacks should be considered as executing in an interrupt context. This is true for both physical devices with IDs >= 0 and “virtual” devices with negative IDs like -1 (these “virtual” devices are still thin shims on top of real hardware and real hardware interrupts). See Writing interrupt handlers.

Miscellaneous functions


Return a 24-bit software generated random number.


Returns a byte string with a unique identifier of a board/SoC. It will vary from a board/SoC instance to another, if underlying hardware allows. Length varies by hardware (so use substring of a full value if you expect a short ID). In some MicroPython ports, ID corresponds to the network MAC address.

machine.time_pulse_us(pin, pulse_level, timeout_us=1000000)

Time a pulse on the given pin, and return the duration of the pulse in microseconds. The pulse_level argument should be 0 to time a low pulse or 1 to time a high pulse.

If the current input value of the pin is different to pulse_level, the function first (*) waits until the pin input becomes equal to pulse_level, then (**) times the duration that the pin is equal to pulse_level. If the pin is already equal to pulse_level then timing starts straight away.

The function will return -2 if there was timeout waiting for condition marked (*) above, and -1 if there was timeout during the main measurement, marked (**) above. The timeout is the same for both cases and given by timeout_us (which is in microseconds).



IRQ wake values.


Reset causes.


Wake-up reasons.