machine — functions related to the hardware

The machine module contains specific functions related to the hardware on a particular board. Most functions in this module allow to achieve direct and unrestricted access to and control of hardware blocks on a system (like CPU, timers, buses, etc.). Used incorrectly, this can lead to malfunction, lockups, crashes of your board, and in extreme cases, hardware damage.

A note of callbacks used by functions and class methods of machine module: all these callbacks should be considered as executing in an interrupt context. This is true for both physical devices with IDs >= 0 and “virtual” devices with negative IDs like -1 (these “virtual” devices are still thin shims on top of real hardware and real hardware intrerrupts). See Writing interrupt handlers.

Miscellaneous functions


Set the filename of the main script to run after is finished. If this function is not called then the default file will be executed.

It only makes sense to call this function from within


Return a 24-bit software generated random number.


Returns a byte string with a unique identifier of a board/SoC. It will vary from a board/SoC instance to another, if underlying hardware allows. Length varies by hardware (so use substring of a full value if you expect a short ID). In some MicroPython ports, ID corresponds to the network MAC address.

machine.time_pulse_us(pin, pulse_level, timeout_us=1000000)

Time a pulse on the given pin, and return the duration of the pulse in microseconds. The pulse_level argument should be 0 to time a low pulse or 1 to time a high pulse.

If the current input value of the pin is different to pulse_level, the function first (*) waits until the pin input becomes equal to pulse_level, then (**) times the duration that the pin is equal to pulse_level. If the pin is already equal to pulse_level then timing starts straight away.

The function will return -2 if there was timeout waiting for condition marked (*) above, and -1 if there was timeout during the main measurement, marked (**) above. The timeout is the same for both cases and given by timeout_us (which is in microseconds).



IRQ wake values.


Reset causes.


Wake-up reasons.